Understanding the Symptoms and Complications of Uncontrolled Diabetes

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Introduction:

Symptoms and Complication of Diabetes

Symptoms and Complications of Uncontrolled Diabetes: Uncontrolled diabetes, characterized by sustained high or low blood sugar levels, poses serious health risks, leading to complications such as microvascular and macrovascular issues. This article explores the symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes and its impact on the body.

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Symptoms and Complications of Uncontrolled Diabetes in the Body:

Symptoms and Complications of Uncontrolled Diabetes
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  1. Effects on the Body: Uncontrolled diabetes, with blood glucose levels exceeding 180 mg/dL, damages nerves, blood vessels, and vital organs. Microvascular complications involve the eyes, kidneys, and nerves, while macrovascular complications include cardiovascular diseases. Dental issues, reduced infection resistance, and complications during pregnancy are also associated with uncontrolled diabetes.
  2. Life Expectancy: Uncontrolled type 1 diabetes may lead to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a life-threatening condition that can emerge rapidly. Type 2 diabetes, if uncontrolled, shortens life expectancy by six years on average. Improving blood sugar control can potentially add 3.8 years.
  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose): Hyperglycemia, diagnosed with fasting blood glucose over 100 mg/dL, can manifest with blurry vision, excessive thirst, increased hunger, fatigue, and frequent urination. Severe cases may involve loss of consciousness, nausea, vomiting, rapid breathing, and heartbeat.
  4. Foot Infections and Ulcers: Uncontrolled diabetes weakens the immune system, facilitating infections. Diabetic foot syndrome, characterized by impaired blood flow, can lead to slow wound healing, foot ulcers, and, if untreated, possibly amputation.
  5. Frequent Urination: Polyuria, frequent urination, results from high blood sugar levels preventing glucose reabsorption by the kidneys. It can lead to extreme dehydration and kidney injury if not managed.
  6. Frequent Thirst: Polydipsia, excessive thirst, accompanies polyuria due to dehydration from persistent fluid loss. Drinking more water provides short-term relief but doesn’t address the underlying issue.
  7. Extreme Fatigue: Uncontrolled diabetes contributes to extreme fatigue, influenced by factors like obesity, depression, hyperglycemic attacks, sleep problems, and stress.
  8. High Blood Sugar in People Without Diabetes: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a potentially life-threatening complication, can occur when the body lacks sufficient insulin to transport glucose into cells. Symptoms include dry skin, frequent urination, fruity breath odor, and confusion.
  9. Constant Hunger: Polyphagia, or excessive hunger, results from the body’s signal for more food due to energy deficiency caused by uncontrolled diabetes.
  10. Blurry Vision: Blurry vision can indicate high, low, or fluctuating blood sugar levels, potentially leading to diabetic retinopathy and vision loss.
  11. Weight Loss: Persistent high blood sugar levels can cause the body to break down fat and muscle for energy, resulting in weight loss.
  12. Hearing Problems: Hearing loss is more common in uncontrolled diabetes, possibly due to damage to small blood vessels in the inner ear.
  13. Circulation Problems: Elevated glucose levels over time contribute to fatty deposits in blood vessels, leading to peripheral artery disease (PAD) with symptoms like fatigue, hair loss, and leg ulcers.
  14. Skin Conditions: Diabetes can affect the skin, causing conditions like acanthosis nigricans, necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, bullous diabeticorum, eruptive xanthomatosis, digital sclerosis, and disseminated granuloma annulare.
  15. Long-Term Effects: Uncontrolled high blood sugar leads to long-term complications, impacting the quality of life and increasing the risk of heart disease, strokes, and irreversible complications.

Conclusion:

Managing blood sugar levels is crucial to prevent complications associated with uncontrolled diabetes. Individuals experiencing symptoms or struggling to control their blood sugar should consult healthcare providers for appropriate management strategies. Regular check-ups are essential for effective diabetes management tailored to individual needs.

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